A profusion of spring annuals

Friday, 01 October 2010

Centranthus calcitrapa, an annual form of valerian, in the garden of Sandra Wilson in Sydney

A visit this week to a lovely local garden reminded me of the value of self-seeding spring annuals. Like many gardeners, I don't seem to have time these days to plant out a lot of annuals for spring, but there are a number of them which obligingly come up year after year of their own accord, creative lovely soft informal effects. They are particularly useful when there are bare patches between cut-back shrubs and late-appearing perennials, as they fill in gaps and then can be removed once the garden starts to fill in again in late spring. They give a pretty cottage-garden effect that is often hard to achieve using perennials in our climate.

Cynoglossum amabile

Some of these easy-going spring annuals have been familiar to me since childhood and I grow them in my own garden. Forget-me-nots (Myosotis sylvatica, ht 30cm) with their tiny, pale blue eyes of bloom are irresistible when they first open in spring. I love to see swathes of these growing beneath trees and shrubs - though by the end of the season, I am equally glad to see the end of them, as their seedpods stick to clothes and animals in their determination to spread themselves around the garden. There is an unusual white form that does quite well in Sydney, and even more rarely, a pink version. They will take some shade. Cynoglossum amabile (ht 50cm) is colloquially called the Chinese forget-me-not and it has larger sky-blue flowers in greater profusion. This form also self-seeds, but not quite to the same extent. There are also white and pink forms of it but I have never found them to be as robust as the blue one in Sydney. It flowers into early summer.

Primula malacoides

Primula malacoides (ht to 30cm) is another annual that will grow in shade and is a determined self-seeder. I haven't deliberately planted it for years but they pop up everywhere and look so pretty with their tiered layers of simple flowers of pink, white or mauve. Also in shade, biennial honesty (Lunaria annua, ht to 75cm) comes into flower now and is a determined self-seeder. The basic type has plain green leaves and a purple flower but the white-flowered form with white-variegated foliage is a truly lovely plant and if you discard any seedlings that don't have the leaf variegation and don't grow other forms nearby, it should continue to proliferate in your garden for many years. The silvery seedpods are attractive later on in the year.

Lobularia maritima in the garden of Sandra Wilson in Sydney

In sunny spots, I enjoy the prolific Viola tricolor (ht 15cm), or Johnny jump-ups, which appear in their hundreds every spring. They have such cute, cheerful little flowers of purple and yellow; I also have a pure black version, 'Bowles' Black', which also has begun self-seeding in my garden. Sweet Alice or alyssum (Lobularia maritima, ht 20cm) with its honey-scented fragrant little bobbles is another favourite - I remember it growing in my grandmother's country garden in the 1960s, where it came up every year on its own on the edges of her paths. The most common form is white, but there are also pink and purple varieties.

An annual form of Silene in the garden of Sandra Wilson in Sydney

My friend grows less common annuals in her garden and one of the loveliest is a form of Silene (possibly S. coeli-rosa, ht 45cm), which is sometimes (incorrectly) called Viscaria or Lychnis, with hot-pink flowers. It forms sheets of colour in a sunny spot and comes back regularly every year. She also grows an annual form of valerian (Centranthus calcitrapa, shown at the top of the blog), which has minute pale pink flowers clustered in crowded heads like the perennial form. She also grows love-in-a-mist (Nigella damascena , ht 40cm) which has soft, feathery leaves and amazing whiskery flowers of blue or white, or even pink. Virginia stock (Malcomia maritima, ht 20cm) was another old-fashioned annual that I noticed growing in the garden, a pretty mixture of dainty pink, mauve and white blooms.

Orlaya grandiflora

A very unusual annual that has circulated amongst my gardening friends over the last few years is Orlaya grandiflora, a lovely annual with white flowers a little like a miniature Queen Anne's lace. It has soft ferny leaves and comes up every year in a hot, dry spot in my garden. It comes from the Mediterranean region, as do many of these spring annuals that thrive in hot, sunny positions in our gardens. Another self-seeder for a similar spot is the petite daisy Leucanthemum paludosum (ht 15cm) - which has simple white flowers, just right for spring.

Though tedious, it is important to thin out self-seeding annuals when they are small, to give them room to grow into sturdy plants. It is also necessary to leave parts of the soil without a mulch cover, otherwise the self-sown annuals won't appear. I try to leave patches of soil where possible - though then of course, I get lots of weeds!

Some of these seeds are available by mail order - others are passed from gardener to gardener in the time-honoured tradition. I came home from my garden visit with some seedlings of the annual Silene, which I have planted in the hope that they may self-seed for me next spring ...

Reader Comments

  • By Densey 2446 Sunday, 03 October 2010

    Love to read your blog. Mid North Coast gardens are not all that different from Sydneys, though I manage to grow a few subtropical things and am keeping a careful watch on two tropical Poinciana trees, lagging them against frost in winter. Frosts are mild where I live, though. Densey Clyne

  • By Densey 2446 Sunday, 03 October 2010

    Densey again. My garden will be open on 23rd October but it is looking at its very best now, with wisteria just finishing and roses coming. The annuals you mention - Johnny Jump Up, Cynoglossum etc are filling the gaps now but I fear a last desperate effort to replace them when they finish.

    Thanks for your comments, Densey! Would you like to give us the details of your open garden so that interested readers could visit? That would be great. Deirdre

  • By Peta 6253 Sunday, 03 October 2010

    Ah! The joys of the spring garden. I just love seeing primulas, valerian and even forget-me-nots even if they are a nuisance with their sticky seeds. In the South West of WA we are bracing for a very dry summer because winter rain has been way below normal. Mulching will help retain moisture.

    Thanks, Peta. We have had very different conditions - a lot of rain. I hope you get some rain soonb where you are. Deirdre

  • By Carole 2230 Sunday, 03 October 2010

    Just beginning a renewed ability with my Port Hacking garden and you have reminded me of past favourites in other gardens in a cooler climate. During the drought period of years 2002 to 2009 I didnt water so over the time I lost a lot of my perenials and reseeding annuals. Thank you.

    Thanks, Carole. I hope you will be able tp restock your garden with some of your favourites. We are lucky to have had so much rain this year. Deirdre

  • By dorothy 4060 Monday, 04 October 2010

    Hello Deirdre, Do you have any mail order emails from Brisbane that I may be able to order from. Enjoyed the latest. Dot.

    Thanks, Dot. Unfortunately I don't know of any mail order places in Brisbane. Kings Seeds and also the Diggers Club ship all round Australia and they do have some of these annuals. Deirdre

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